Dr Carole Llewellyn FRSC is an Associate Professor at Swansea University with research interests in in microalgae and cyanobacteria, how they function in their natural environment and how they can be used to help tackle society’s big challenges.  These big challenges relate to climate change, human health, bioenergy, food-security, aquaculture, waste-water and industrial biotechnology.


  • O’Connor C, Skill SC, Llewellyn CA. 2010 Novel personal care/skincare composition comprising a microalgal extract. Patent GB2495055
  • Llewellyn CA & Galley E. 2002 International Patent Application: on Personal Care Compositions. EP1341514

Project Portofolio

BBSRC-Phyconet ongoing # Exploring chlorophyll-f and associated metabolism for improved intensive cultivation of cyanobacteria. 2015 (PI)

BBSRC:DBT- SuBB (Sustainable Bioenergy and Biofuel) # Using flow cytometry and genomics to characterise and optimise microalgal-bacterial consortia cultivated on wastewater to produce biomass for biofuel (PI)

NERC Biomolecular Analysis Facility (NBAF) 2013 # Mapping metabolites in cyanobacteria in response to ultraviolet exposure. CYANOMET (PI)

EU:ERDF INTERREG IVB- Energetic Algae- EnAlgae. Developing sustainable technologies for algal biomass production (leader)

Collaborations with the industry

Over the last ten years Carole has contributed to developing UK and European algal biotechnology and has collaborated with several industrial companies, in particular with Boots Company PLC.


Carole has >50peer reviewed publications  and is co-editor on a book on phytoplankton.

  1. & Temporal changes in total and size-fractioned chlorophyll-a in surface waters of three provinces in the Atlantic Ocean (September to November) between 2003 and 2010. Journal of Marine Systems150, 56-65.https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa22015 doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2015.05.008

  2. & Using community metabolomics as a new approach to discriminate marine microbial particulate organic matter in the western English Channel. Progress in Oceanography 137, 421-433.https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa20537 doi:10.1016/j.pocean.2015.04.022

  3. & Chlorophyll-a transformations associated with sinking diatoms during termination of a North Atlantic spring bloom. Marine Chemistry 172, 23-33.https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa20538 doi:10.1016/j.marchem.2015.03.005

  4. & Phytoplankton community composition in the south-eastern Black Sea determined with pigments measured by HPLC-CHEMTAX analyses and microscopy cell counts. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 95(1), 35-52.https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa20551 doi:doi:10.1017/S0025315414001040

  5. & Chlorophyll f and chlorophyll d are produced in the cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii when cultured under natural light and near-infrared radiation. FEBS Letters 588, 3770-3777.https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa20556 doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2014.08.026